The treatment method for periodontal diseases depends on the kind of disease and how far the condition has progressed. Regardless of the treatment plan, good daily oral hygiene is essential for the success of any periodontal therapy.
The first step is usually a thorough cleaning which may include scaling to remove plaque and calculus deposits beneath the gumline. The tooth roots may also be planed to smooth the root surface so that gum tissue may heal next to the teeth. In some cases, the occlusion (bite) may also require some adjustment.
Antibiotics or irrigation with antimicrobials (agents or mouthrinses) may be recommended to help control the growth of subgingival bacteria which create toxins and cause periodontitis.
Surgery may be required when deeper pockets (over 4 to 6 mm) are found. It is difficult for the dentist or hygienist to thoroughly remove plaque and calculus from deep pockets. Patients can seldom keep them clean and free of plaque. Allowing pockets to remain may lead to infection and bone destruction. Some types of bone defects can be filled with bone grafts.